Integrated Risk Management

Risk Culture and Vision

DFCC Bank PLC (the Bank) adopts a comprehensive and well-structured mechanism for assessing, quantifying, managing and reporting risk exposures which are material and relevant for its operations within a well-defined risk management framework. An articulated set of limits under the risk management framework explains the risk appetite of the Bank for all material and relevant risk categories and the risk capital position. Risk management is integrated with strategic, business and financial planning and customer transactions, so that business and risk management goals and responsibilities are aligned across the organisation. Risk is managed in a systematic manner by focusing on a group basis as well as managing risk across the enterprise, individual business units, products, services, transactions, and across all geographic locations.

The following broad risk categories are in focus:

Risks covered under Pillar I of Basel regulations

  • Credit risk
  • Market risk including foreign currency risk, equity prices risk, and interest rate risk in the trading book
  • Operational risk.

Other risks covered under Pillar II of Basel regulations

  • Business risk and strategic risk
  • Liquidity risk
  • Settlement risk in treasury and international operations
  • Credit concentration risk
  • Cybersecurity risk
  • Interest rate risk in the banking book
  • Legal risk
  • Compliance risk
  • Reputational risk
  • Country risk.

Credit risk amounts to the highest quantum of quantifiable risk faced by the Bank based on the quantification techniques currently in use. The Bank’s credit risk accounted for 91% of the total risk-weighted assets. Additionally, the Bank takes necessary measures to proactively manage operational and market risks as very important risk categories considered as Pillar I risks under the Basel regulations. Operational risk incidents may be either high frequency but low impact or with low frequency but high impact, yet all of them warrant being closely monitored and managed prudently.

The Bank’s general policies for risk management are outlined as follows:

  1. The Board of Directors’ responsibility for maintenance of a prudent integrated risk management function in the Bank.
  2. Communication of the risk policies to all relevant employees of the Bank.
  3. Structure of the “Three Lines of Defence” in the Bank for management of risks which consists of the risk-assuming functions, independent risk management and compliance functions and the internal and external audit functions.
  4. Ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and other laws underpinning the risk management and business operations of the Bank.
  5. Centralised integrated risk management function which is independent from the risk assuming functions.
  6. Ensuring internal expertise, capabilities for risk management, and ability to absorb unexpected losses when entering into new business and delivery channels, developing products, or adopting new strategies.
  7. An assessment of risk exposures on an incremental and portfolio basis when designing and redesigning new products and processes before implementation. Such analyses include among other areas, business opportunities, target customer requirements, core competencies of the Bank and the competitors and financial viability.
  8. Adoption of the principle of risk-based pricing.
  9. Ensuring that the Board approved target capital requirements, which are more stringent than the minimum regulatory capital requirements, are not compromised. For internal purposes, economic capital is quantified using Basel recommended guidelines together with the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP). A cushion for the regulatory capital requirement is maintained to cover part of stress losses and losses caused by other risks such as strategic risk, liquidity and reputation risks which are not in Pillar I of Basel guidelines. Capital requirement is monitored on a quarterly basis based on certain stress scenarios.
  10. Aligning the risk management strategy to the Bank’s business strategy.
  11. Ensuring comprehensive, transparent, and objective risk disclosures to the Board, Senior Management, Regulator, Shareholders, and other Stakeholders.
  12. Continuous review of the risk management framework and ICAAP to align them with Basel recommendations and regulatory guidelines.
  13. Maintenance of internal prudential risk limits based on the risk appetite of the Bank and wherever relevant, over and above the required regulatory limits.
  14. Ensuring a prudent risk management culture within the Bank.
  15. Periodic review of risk management policies and practices to be in line with the developments in regulations, business environment, internal environment and industry best practices.

A risk management culture has been created across the Bank that promotes its business objectives and an environment that enables the Management to execute the business strategy in a more efficient and sustainable manner. The Board of Directors regularly reviews the risk profile of the Bank and its Group, and every business or function is included in developing a strong risk culture within the Bank. Further, the Bank ensures that, every employee has a clear understanding of his or her responsibilities in terms of risks undertaken in every step in their regular business activities. This has been inculcated mainly through the Code of Conduct, periodically conducted training programmes, clearly defined procedural manuals and integrated risk management function’s involvement as a review process in business operations.

Risk Governance

“Three Lines of Defence” Approach

The Bank advocates strong risk governance applied pragmatically and consistently with a strong emphasis on the concept of “Three Lines of Defence”. The governance structure encompasses accountability, responsibility, independence, reporting, communication and transparency, both internally and with our relevant external stakeholders.

The First Line of Defence involves management control at business level and adhering to relevant internal control mechanisms while discharging the responsibilities and accountability for day-to-day management of business operations. Independent risk monitoring, validation, centralised oversight of effective implementation of risk management framework, policy review and compliance by the Integrated Risk Management Department (IRMD), and the Compliance Department constitute the Second Line of Defence. The Third Line of Defence is provided by the independent check and quality assurance of the internal and external audit functions.

Risk governance of the Bank includes setting and defining the risk appetite statement, risk limits, risk management functions, capital planning, risk management policies, risk infrastructure, and risk profile analysis. The Bank exhibits an established risk management culture with effective risk management approaches, systems and controls. Policy manuals, internal controls, segregation of duties, clearly demarcated authority limits and internal audit form a part of key risk management tools. The Bank has developed a risk management framework covering risk governance, which includes, risk management structure comprising different subcommittees and clearly defined reporting lines ensuring risk management unit is functioning independently. The Chief Risk Officer (CRO) functions with direct access to the BIRMC.

Governance Structure for Risk Management

The Concept of the “Three Lines of Defence” for Integrated Risk Management Function

Governance Structure for Risk Management


Risk Policies and Guidelines

A set of structured policies and frameworks recommended by the Integrated Risk Management Committee and approved by the Board of Directors forms a key part of the risk governance structure. Integrated Risk Management Framework stipulates, in a broader aspect, the policies, guidelines, and organisational structure for the management of overall risk exposures of the Bank in an integrated approach. This framework defines risk integration and aggregation approaches for different risk categories. In addition, separate policy frameworks detail the practices for the management of key specific risk categories such as credit risk, market risk, credit concentration risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, reputation risk, and other policies governing information security risk. These policy frameworks are reviewed periodically and communicated across the Bank. Respective staff members are required to adhere to the specifications of these frameworks when conducting business transactions.

Risk Appetite

Risk appetite of the Bank has been defined in the Overall Risk Limits System. It consists of risk limits arising from regulatory requirements, borrowing covenants, and internal limits for prudential purposes. The Limits System forms a key part of the risk indicators and covers key risk areas such as credit, interest rate, liquidity, operational, foreign exchange, concentration, and risk capital position amongst others. Lending limits have been established to manage credit concentration to industry sectors, rating grades, borrowers and countries as part of the prudential internal limits. Industry sector limits for the lending portfolio considers the inherent diversification within the subsectors and the borrowers within broader sectors. These limits are monitored monthly and quarterly on a “Traffic Light” system. These risk appetite limits are reviewed at least annually in line with the risk management capacities, business opportunities, business strategy of the Bank and regulatory requirements.

In the event the risk appetite threshold has been breached or it is approaching the levels not desirable by the Bank, risk mitigating measures and business controls are implemented to bring the exposure level back within the accepted range. Risk appetite, therefore, translates into operational measures such as new or enhanced limits or qualitative checks for the dimensions such as capital, earnings volatility, and concentration of risks.

Tolerance Limits for Key Types of Risks

Risk area Risk appetite criteria Limit/Range
Integrated risk and
capital management
Total Tier I capital adequacy ratio (under Basel III) (Total Tier I capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets) > 8.5% (Regulatory)
Internal limit is based on ICAAP
Total capital adequacy ratio (under Basel III) (Total capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets) > 12.5% (Regulatory)
Internal limit is based on ICAAP
Credit quality and concentration Stage 3 ratio < Industry average as published by
the CBSL (Internal)
Single borrower limit – Individual < 30% (Regulatory)
< 28% (Internal)
Single borrower limit – Group < 33% (Regulatory)
< 30% (Internal)
Aggregate large accommodation < 55% (Regulatory)
< 45% (Internal)
Exposures to industry sectors < 5% to 20% (Internal)
Aggregate limit for related parties < 25% (Internal)
Liquidity risk Liquid assets ratio > 20% (Regulatory)
> 22% (Internal)
Leverage ratio > 3% (Regulatory)
NSFR > 90% (Regulatory)
> 100% (Internal)
Liquidity coverage ratio (all currencies and rupee only) > 90% (Regulatory)
> 100% (Internal)
Market risk Forex net open long position or short position As prescribed by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka

Board Integrated Risk Management Committee (BIRMC)

The BIRMC is a Board Subcommittee, which oversees the risk management function as required by the Regulator. The BIRMC functions under the responsibilities set out in the Board-approved Charter for the BIRMC, which incorporates corporate governance requirements for Licensed Commercial Banks issued by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka (CBSL). BIRMC sets the policies for Bank-wide risk management including credit risk, market risk, operational risk, cybersecurity risk, and liquidity risk.

In addition to the Board representatives, the BIRMC consists of the CEO and the CRO as permanent members. Further, Heads representing, Finance, Treasury, Information Technology, Operations, Internal Audit and Compliance attend the meeting as invitees. A summary of the responsibilities and functions of the BIRMC is given in the Report on the Board Integrated Risk Management Committee on page 185 of this Annual Report.

The BIRMC meets at least on a quarterly basis and reviews the risk information and exposures as reported by the Integrated Risk Management Department, Treasury, Finance, Compliance, and the other business and service units. Risk reporting includes reports on overall risk analysis relating to the Bank’s capital, risk appetite, limits position, stress testing, any strategic risks faced by the Bank, top and emerging risks to the Bank and risk analysis of the Group companies. Additionally, they include reports covering the main risk areas such as credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, information systems security risk, and compliance risk.

During 2022, five BIRMC meetings were conducted and the Committee paid more attention on liquidity risk, credit risk and capital adequacy in the increasingly volatile operating environment due to stressed macroeconomic landscape. The Committee reviewed the adequacy of the risk mitigating actions taken and stress testing results to align the risk appetite of the Bank to navigate ongoing challenges.

Scope and Main Content of Risk Reporting to the BIRMC

Risk type Scope and main content of risk reporting
Overall risk
  • Review of the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP)
  • Regulatory capital adequacy position and trends compared with limits
  • Overall risk limit system including regulatory and internal limits
  • Stress testing of key risks and overall exposures
  • Reports on top and emerging strategic and business risks
  • Risk analysis of Group companies
  • Review of risk management policies and frameworks
Credit risk
  • Credit portfolio analysis and risk quantifications
  • Summary of Loan Review Mechanism
  • Reports on validation results and changes implemented for risk rating models
Market and
liquidity risk
  • Reports on liquidity and foreign exchange risk management by Treasury
  • Market risk analysis by Treasury Middle Office and review of any limits
  • Equity portfolio analysis
  • Liquidity risk monitoring under stock and flow approaches
  • Status report of margin trading facilities
  • Analysis of investment, trading and fixed income trading portfolios
  • Minutes of the ALCO including the key decisions and recommendations made by ALCO
Operational risks
  • Minutes of the ORMC and FRMC including the key decisions and recommendations made by committees
  • Reports on Business Continuity Plan and disaster recovery drills undertaken
IT and systems security risk
  • External and internal vulnerability assessment reports
  • Penetration testing reports
  • Information security policies and the status of implementation
  • Status report of current security posture
  • Top and emerging risks and the status update
Compliance risk
  • Status of the Bank’s compliance with rules and regulations
  • Results of compliance tests undertaken and assessment of overall compliance risk levels
  • New rules and regulations
  • Review of compliance related policies and procedures
  • Anti Money Laundering (AML) and Countering Financing of Terrorism
    (CFT) Measures


Involvement of Management Committees

Management Committees such as the Credit Committees (CC), Asset and Liability Management Committee (ALCO), Operational Risk Management Committee (ORMC), Fraud Risk Management Committee (FRMC), Special Loan Review Committee (SLRC), IT Steering Committee (ITSC), Investment Committee (IC), Pre-Evaluation Committee (PEC) Impairment Assessment Committee (IAC), Information Security Committee and Consequent Management Committee are included in the organisational structure for integrated risk management function. The responsibilities and tasks of these committees are stipulated in the Board-approved Charters and Terms of References (TORs) and the membership of each committee is defined to bring an optimal balance between business and risk management.

Organisation Structure for Integrated Risk Management


Organisation Structure for Integrated Risk Management


The Integrated Risk Management Department (IRMD) is responsible for measuring and monitoring risk on an ongoing basis to ensure compliance with the parameters set out by the Board or BIRMC and other Management Committees for carrying out the overall risk management function in the Bank. It consists of separate units such as Credit Risk Management, Market Risk Monitoring, Operational Risk Management, Asset and Liability Management, Loan Review Mechanism, Information Systems Security Risk Management, Integrated Risk Management, Treasury Middle Office, Portfolio Risk Management and Business Continuity Management. IRMD is involved with product or business strategy development and entering into new business lines and gives input from the initial design stage throughout the process from a risk management perspective.

Key Developments in the Risk Management Function During the Period Under Review

Several significant initiatives were undertaken focusing continuously on regulatory developments and reassessing the Bank’s existing risk management policies, guidelines, and practices for necessary improvements. In addition to these regulatory specifications, changes in business strategy, industry factors and international best practices were also considered in the improvement process. The following are the key initiatives during the period under review which led to further improvements in the overall integrated risk management function.

Prudential risk limits were reviewed in order to reflect the current risk appetite of the Bank by setting new limits wherever necessary. Internal limits were put in place to better manage the regulatory limits as trigger points, which are much stricter than the regulatory limits. Five new internal limits were introduced in the Liquidity risk management area and a quantitative risk appetite limit was introduced for Operational risk. Exposure to GOSL and exposure to the Maldives were reviewed considering a holistic view and to manage the overall concentration risk. Internal limit on exposure to Manufacture of Textile and apparel was enhanced considering the further depreciation of LKR and the national requirement to facilitate export oriented business.

All the Board-approved risk management frameworks, charters, and TORs were reviewed during the period, especially considering changes in regulatory and business environment. A new policy was established during the year for the “Blacklisting” of the clients.

Revised credit rating models, after incorporating the required calibrations or amendments based on the results of the independent model validation process, were launched during the year. A new rating model was launched for Credit Cards.

With the onset of COVID-19 in Sri Lanka, the potential impact to the credit portfolio of the Bank was evaluated based on exposure to high to low impacted industries. Industry sectors were placed in four stress segments; minimal, short term, medium term and long term, based on magnitude of impact and expected timing of recovery. Such categorisation was reviewed at regular intervals throughout the year, considering the evolving situation. Proactive precautionary measures were taken in lending decisions and disbursement of funds.

Stress testing process was improved with updated stress scenarios which are more relevant to the current economic landscape. A stress testing dashboard was introduced for better presentation of the impact on capital adequacy under each stress circumstances.

IRMD continued to conduct ICAAP which quantifies the amount of capital required for all types of material risks to the Bank, covering both pillar I and pillar II of Basel framework. The capital cushion to be maintained over and above the regulatory minimum requirement covers a portion of stress capital requirement as well.

Necessary amendments to the facility upgrading under SLFRS 9 policy were introduced to be in line with the new regulatory Direction on SLFRS 9 implementation.

Treasury Middle Office (TMO) which is functionally segregated from the Treasury Department, directly reports to the CRO and monitors the Treasury-related market risk limits. The process of call recording of Treasury transactions and treasury limit setup mechanism was further improved during the year.

Scenario analysis and simulations by the ALM unit to assess the expected behaviour of interest margins enabled ALCO to take proactive measures to manage the erosion of margins. Looking at the trends in the market rates, ALCO proactively changed the pricing methods, thus managing net interest margins of the Bank.

IRMD continued to calculate loss ratios for key lending products using historical recovery data in support of impairment assessment under IFRS 9. As part of the risk management practices, the Bank computed the key credit risk quantification parameters such as Probability of Default (PD), Exposure at Default (ED), Loss Given Default (LGD) and the loss ratios which are defined and recommended under the Basel III and IFRS.

Complying with the regulatory Direction on SLFRS 9 implementation, the Bank obtained an independent external validation of the impairment assessment models. This enabled the Bank to establish the robustness of the models and ensure a more accurate and effective impairment assessment.

A new unit within IRMD was established for “Portfolio Risk Management” directly reporting to the CRO. The unit is primarily responsible for actively identifying credit risk related issues, formulating risk mitigation strategies and models to monitor consumer lending products at portfolio level by analysing customer and market data.

The credit workflow ensures that every credit proposal except for certain identified products is evaluated by an independent authority not connected to business lines, being the Credit Risk Management Unit of IRMD. The credit workflow of the Bank was further improved during the year, taking business requirements and changes in market conditions into consideration.

The Loan Review unit which is an independent unit from Credit Risk Management Unit, constantly evaluates the quality of the loan book and brings about qualitative improvements in credit function. The Unit has taken specific actions to increase the sample size and the scope of the loan reviews to obtain feedback from business units with regard to the improvements brought into the post disbursement credit management that would contribute to the quality of the loan portfolio.

Having duly recognised the global trend on increasing threats on systems and information security, the Bank increased its focus on IT systems security under its operational risk management practices. The scope of the Information Systems Security Unit was further enhanced during the year under the Integrated Risk Management Department to proactively manage the information security risk of the Bank. The Information Security Committee oversees the effectiveness of security initiatives and directs the Management of information security risks within the Bank.

Server network, business application security reviews, technology risk assessments, network and other device security reviews are being conducted internally on a regular basis to ensure required attention is given for rectifying known vulnerabilities and security weaknesses in a timely manner. Furthermore, the Unit is involved in new system implementations from request for proposal (RFP) stage to Go-live confirmation and make sure new systems are compliant with industry security best practices. Further, the Unit works with reputed external parties to ensure that critical and customer facing systems are appropriately secured.

Staff awareness programmes on operational risk were held for staff at various levels, from new recruits to Branch Managers while it was further facilitated through the e-Academy. Operational Risk alerts have been shared with the Bank staff as knowledge sharing on the operating risk incidents by indicating the risk and the learning from the incidents. The Bank has developed a model for Risk and Control Self-Assessment (RCSA) and Key Risk Indicators (KRI) for operational risks across all major functions and departments, and continues to monitor closely their applicability, trends and effectiveness of the controls on a semi-annual basis. Currently IRMD monitors 49 departments or units for the KRI and in 2022 RCSA and KRIs were developed for six units.

Credit Risk

Credit risk is defined as the potential loss arising from the customers’ failure to meet contractual obligations as and when they fall due. For banks, Credit risk occurs primarily due to their lending activities - granting of loans and advances to individuals, MSMEs, SMEs and corporates. Direct lending activities as well as commitments and contingencies expose the Bank to credit risk.

From the beginning of the year 2022, banks were experiencing challenges with business disruptions, policy changes, declining foreign exchange reserves, inflationary pressures, rupee depreciation and the surrounding uncertainties in many industry sectors. Government support measures introduced by way of moratorium to cushion the impact on the households and the business entities have masked the true underlying creditworthiness of some of the borrowers that could lead to further deterioration of asset quality in the years ahead.

The lending portfolio accounts for 65% of total assets and credit risk accounts for 91% of the total risk-weighted assets. It is imperative to manage the credit risk of the Bank prudently to ensure sustainability of the Bank, since increase in credit risk will have a negative impact on profitability and capital of the Bank.

Considering the above, the Bank has taken precautionary steps to curtail lending, analysing various segments of the lending portfolio for signs of deterioration, extended repayment periods for identified borrowers and management overlays for risk elevated sectors.

Credit Risk Mitigating Strategies Implemented by the Bank

Review of Credit Risk Framework, Credit Policies and manuals

The Bank continues to review and update its credit policies and processes in response to evolving dynamics to ensure that risk practices are relevant, up to date and address the changing business requirements. During the year, several key policies including Credit Policy, Credit Risk Management Framework and Credit Manual were reviewed and updated further with a view to strengthen Credit Risk Management of the Bank.

Concessions to Bank Customers

Expecting the recovery of businesses to take a longer period with the current stressed economic situation, the Bank in addition to concessions granted by the CBSL, proactively discussed with customers and evaluated the future business cash flows, financial position, industries in which the businesses operate, capacity to resume loan repayments and offered relief for repayments of the facilities.

3,617 moratorium facilities worth LKR 50.29 Bn were provided to the impacted borrowers during 2022.

Moratorium granted during 2022

Number of facilities Amount (LKR Bn)
Saubhagya 58 0.14
Refinance – other 89 0.64
PFS 180 0.46
MSME 392 0.10
Tourism 250 9.39
Corporate 324 23.71
Branch Banking 2,324 15.85

Identification of Watch Listed Clients Based on Early Warning Signals

The Bank has established a watch listing and close monitoring process to identify clients that have demonstrated signs of increased credit risk. The information on frequently watch-listed clients based on overdue exposures, frequent excess positions, frequent cheque returns, restructured and extended facilities, rating downgrades monitored over a period of time, and crossovers to Stage 3 is disseminated to management with a view of taking corrective measures to assure the quality of the Bank loan book. Watch-listed borrowers demonstrating high rate of deterioration in credit quality with significantly large exposures are reported to the Board Credit Committee. A traffic light system is also employed to identify watch listed clients with varying levels of impact to the portfolio.

Industry Analysis

The Bank as a prudent measure has reviewed and analysed industries and portfolio segments to proactively identify negative trends, risk elevated industries and unsecured exposures. IRMD reports to the BIRMC on portfolio dynamics through dashboards and reports that give a snapshot of credit portfolio quality and performance. These analyses further provide direction to business line managers on the direction of lending by dissemination of credit risk related knowledge and sharing information on critical areas.

Further IRMD has provided continuous contribution towards human resource development programs by providing resource personnel to conduct knowledge boosting training programs in areas such as credit evaluation and credit risk management.

Stressed Industry Segments

IRMD initiated a process to identify stressed industry segments in April 2020 with the outbreak of Covid-19 and has been reviewing stressed industry segments periodically. The Bank continues these reviews focusing on current challenges faced by each sector.

Portfolio Risk Management Unit

Recognising the importance of identifying aggregate risks in the Bank’s credit portfolio, a new unit was established to proactively identify and mitigate risks at portfolio level.

The unit will carry out in-depth analyses of the Bank’s multiple lending products to examine portfolio behaviour covering various demographic, geographic customer dimensions and key internal areas.

Tools such as data analytics and modeling techniques are used to gain detailed insights of portfolios. The findings along with recommendations are shared with business units and relevant internal stakeholders for decision making and action. This will add value to achieve business goals in a prudent manner while managing risks more efficiently.

IT Involvement

To increase the efficiency of the credit facility allocation and progress monitoring, IRMD tracker version 2.0 was released in January 2022. The latest version is capable of measuring the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of facility delivery and consists of various dashboard functionalities. This system is an inhouse development of the IRMD using Google AppSheet application.

To facilitate the financial evaluation of finance companies, a new financial evaluation module was introduced to the Financial Analysis Worksheet.





Note: “Other” category includes guarantees, inventory and
book debts, movable equipment and machinery,
vehicles, shares, promissory notes, insurance
and undertaking/agreement to mortgage.




Credit Risk Management Process

The Bank’s credit policies approved by the Board of Directors define the credit objectives, outlining the credit strategy to be adopted at the Bank. The policies are based on CBSL Directions on integrated risk management, Basel recommendations, business practices, and risk appetite of the Bank.

Credit risk management guidelines identify target markets and industry sectors, define risk tolerance limits and recommend control measures to manage concentration risk. Standardised formats and clearly documented processes and procedures ensure uniformity of practices across the Bank.

Credit risk culture Reviewed Credit risk management framework and credit policy to meet the requirements of the current economic conditions. Governance structure and specific organisational structure for credit risk management. IRMD creates awareness of credit risk management through training programmes and experience sharing sessions, including online channels and infographic e-learning modules to enhance credit underwriting and evaluation capabilities in the Bank. Enhanced the TOD management process to identify and report on exceptions. Continuous review and monitoring of the Bank lending portfolios to proactively take steps to restructure facilities including identifying those that require greater credit supervision. Carried out industry studies to evaluate specific challenges, risks and opportunities available to realign the credit strategy and direction on lending to business units.
approval process
Structured and standardised credit approval process is documented in the credit manual. The entire gamut of activities involving credit appraisal, documentation, funds disbursement, monitoring performance, restructuring and recovery procedures are described in detail in the manual which is reviewed once in two years at minimum or more frequently if required. Standardised appraisal formats and workbooks have been designed for each facility type and are being reviewed annually or as and when required to be in line with the business needs. For processing of finance leases, the Bank is using an inbuilt application software. Clearly defined credit workflow ensures segregation of duties among credit originators, independent review and approval authority. Delegation of Lending Authority sets out approval limits based on a combination of risk levels, as defined by risk rating and security type, loan size, proposed tenure, borrower, and group exposure. IRMD’s involvement in independent rating review of every credit proposal with the exception of certain identified products. CRO and VP CRM is an observer of the Credit Committee and evaluates credit proposals from a risk perspective. Risk-based pricing is practised at the Bank with the exception for identified products, any deviations being allowed only for funding through credit lines and where strong justification is made due to business development purposes.
Control measures Exclusion list and special clearance sectors are identified based on the country’s laws and regulations, the Bank’s corporate values and policies and level of risk exposure. Exclusion list specifies the industry sectors to which lending is disallowed while special clearance sectors specify industry sectors and credit products to which the Bank practices caution in lending. Exposure limits on single borrower, group exposure, and advisory limits on industry sectors and large group borrowers are set by the Board of Directors on recommendation of IRMD.
Credit risk management Timely identification of problem credits through product-wise and concentration analysis in relation to industries, specific products and geographical locations such as branches or regions. Industry reports or periodical economic analysis provide direction to lending units to identify profitable business sectors to grow the Bank’s portfolio and to identify industry-related risk sources and their impact. Categorisation of the industry sectors into four stress segments based on the magnitude of impact and timing of recovery and reviewing the industry stress segments at frequent intervals based on the evolving situation . Evaluation of new products from a credit risk perspective. Independent rating review by the Credit Risk Management Unit of IRMD ensures an assessment of credit quality at the time of credit origination and annual credit reviews. Post sanction review of loans within a stipulated time frame is in place in accordance with Loan Review Policy to ensure credit quality is maintained. Separate Loan Review Unit is established independent of the Credit Risk Management Unit. Periodic validation of credit rating models and introducing necessary adjustments to the models for better discriminatory power, based on model validation results and existing macroeconomic outlook.
Credit risk monitoring
and reporting
Analysis of total portfolio in terms of stage movement, product distribution, industry sectors, Top 20 borrower exposures, borrower rating distribution, branch-wise portfolio distribution, and collateral distribution is carried out periodically and reported to the BIRMC. A comprehensive and a systematic process of watch listing is in place for identifying, monitoring and reporting clients that demonstrate significant increase in credit risk, which will contribute to the continuous improvement of the quality
of the loan book. Reporting quarterly to BIRMC on credit concentration risk positions with regard to regulatory limits such as single borrower and group exposure limits and internal advisory limits on industry sectors, large group borrowers, and selected geographical regions as well as exposure based on credit rating grades. Reporting on top key risks to the BIRMC and the Board. Continuous contribution to effective financial reporting through loss ratio calculation, stage upgrades in accordance with SLFRS 9 and involvement in the Impairment Committee.
Credit risk mitigation For the purpose of proactively identifying and reducing the credit risk at the portfolio level, an independent portfolio risk management unit has been established. Comprehensive and in depth analyses are being continuously carried out to evaluate the portfolio behaviour covering various demographic, geographic and customer dimensions. Credit strategy on portfolio level will be realigned with the findings of this unit.

Key Credit Risk Measurement Tools and Reporting Frequencies

The following credit risk measurement tools are being used in managing credit risk by the Bank and reported in the stipulated frequencies

Credit risk measure or indicator Frequency
Rating model validation results Annually
Probability of default Annually
LGD under Basel III and IFRS Quarterly/Annually
Top and emerging risks under credit risk Monthly
Credit portfolio analysis Quarterly
Rating-wise distribution across business segments Quarterly
Summary of rating reviews including overridden ratings Quarterly
Watch-listed clients Monthly to the Senior Management and quarterly to the Board
Summary of reviews done under Loan Review Mechanism Quarterly

Dimensions for Analysis and Monitoring of Credit Concentration Risk

Credit concentration risk measure/indicator Frequency
Industry sector limits positions Quarterly
Top 20 borrower exposures Quarterly
Top 20 borrower group exposures Quarterly
Industry sector HHI* Quarterly
Product distribution of the credit portfolio Quarterly
Borrower distribution across rating grades Quarterly
Collateral concentration Quarterly

* The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is a measure of concentration, calculated by squaring the share of each sector and then summing-up the resulting numbers.


Loan Review Mechanism

Loan Review Mechanism (LRM) is a regulatory requirement under the CBSL Direction No. 7 of 2011 on Integrated Risk Management which is an effective tool for constantly evaluating the quality of the loan book and bringing about qualitative improvements in credit functions. The LRM function is carried out by the Loan Review Unit (LRU) of IRMD.

During 2022, LRU expanded its scope of work by adding credit cards and group review for Branch Banking. Further, the facility size was reduced to ensure more reviews are carried out covering all the segments of the Bank.

Total volume of the facilities that were reviewed by the LRU in 2022 was well above the regulatory and advisory limit covering all the aspects specified in the policy. Based on the findings, LRM recommendations are reported to the Credit Committee, Consequence Management Committee and to the BIRMC to ensure that the remedial actions are taken to enhance the quality of the credit portfolio.

LRU conducted a knowledge sharing session for the credit staff on the LRM findings in June 2022. Also two special papers on “Foreign Currency (FCY) remittance by Cinnamon Exporters of the Bank” and “Personal loans and credit cards crossed over to Stage 3 within 3 months of the grant” were submitted along with observations and recommendations to the Credit Committee and the Fraud Risk Management Committee respectively. In addition, special follow up on facilities approved by the Credit Committee were also carried out.

Market Risk

Market risk is the possibility of losses arising from changes in the value of a financial instrument as a result of changes in market variables such as interest rates, exchange rates, equity prices, and commodity prices.

As a financial intermediary, the Bank is exposed primarily to the interest rate risk and as an authorised dealer, is exposed to exchange rate risk on foreign currency portfolio positions. Market risk could impact the Bank mainly in two ways: viz, loss of cash flows or loss of economic value. Market risk can be looked at in two dimensions; as traded market risk, which is associated with the trading book and non-traded market risk, which is associated with the banking book.

The ALCO oversees the management of both the traded and the non-traded market risks. The Treasury manages the foreign exchange risk with permitted hedging mechanisms. Trends in relevant local as well as international markets are analysed and reported to ALCO and BIRMC by IRMD and the Treasury. The market risks are controlled through various limits. These limits are stipulated by the Investment Policy, TMO Policy, Treasury Manual, and Overall Limits System of the Bank. Interest rate sensitivity analysis (Modified duration analysis), Value-at-risk (VAR), simulation and scenario analysis, stress testing and marking-to-market of the positions are used as quantification tools for the purpose of risk monitoring and management of market risks.

Treasury Middle Office (TMO) is segregated from the Treasury Front Office (TFO) and Treasury Back Office (TBO) and reports to the CRO. The role of the TMO includes the day-to-day operational function of monitoring and controlling risks assumed in the TFO based on clearly defined limits and controls. Being independent of the dealers, the TMO provides an objective view on front office activities and monitors the limits. TMO has the authority to escalate limit excesses as per delegation of authority to the relevant hierarchy. The Bank has allocated haircuts on Repo/Reverse Repo transactions according to the CBSL Direction No. 01 of 2019. TMO independently verifies the sufficient allocation of security with the minimum haircut as specified in the circular. There were no penalties on haircuts for Repo and Reverse Repo transactions as the direction was complied.

The Treasury system has enhanced TMO’s capability to report crucial data with better accuracy and on a real time basis. The strengthened Treasury and market risk management practices contribute positively to the overall risk rating of the Bank and efficiency in the overall Treasury operations. TBO which reports to the Chief Financial Officer is responsible for accounting, processing settlement and valuations of all Treasury products, and transactions. The Treasury transaction-related information is independently submitted by TBO to relevant authorities. During the year, the unit improved the Bank’s bidding process of treasury bills/bonds auction in primary market for a better risk management approach.

Interest Rate Risk

Interest rate risk can be termed as the risk of loss in the net interest income (earnings perspective) or the net worth (economic value perspective) due to adverse changes in the market interest rates. Interest rate risk can consist of –

  • Repricing risk, which arises from the inherent mismatch between the Bank’s assets and liabilities resulting in repricing timing differences
  • Basis risk, which arises from the imperfect correlation between different yield and cost benchmarks attached to repricing of assets and liabilities
  • Yield curve risk, which arises from shifts in the yield curve that have a negative impact on the Bank’s earnings or asset values

The Bank manages its interest rate risks primarily through an asset liability repricing gap analysis, which distributes interest rate sensitive asset and liability positions into several maturity buckets. Board defined limits are in place for interest rate gaps and positions, which are monitored on a periodic basis to ensure compliance to the prescribed limits.

The Asset and Liability Management (ALM) Unit routinely assesses the Bank’s asset and liability profile in terms of interest rate risk and the trends in costs and yields are reported to ALCO for necessary realignment in the asset and liability structure and the pricing mechanism. ALM performed a number of scenario analysis and simulations on the effect of interest rate changes to the Bank’s interest income during the year, to facilitate pricing decisions taken at ALCO.

Foreign Exchange Rate Risk

Foreign exchange rate risk can be termed as possibility of adverse impact to the Group’s capital or earnings due to fluctuations in the market exchange rates. This risk arises due to holding of assets or liabilities in foreign currencies. Net Open Position (NOP) on foreign currency indicates the level of net foreign currency exposure that has been assumed by the Bank at a point of time. This figure represents the unhedged position of the Bank in all foreign currencies. The Bank accrues foreign currency exposure through purchase and sale of foreign currency from customers in its commercial banking and international trade business and through borrowing and lending in foreign currency.

The Bank manages the foreign exchange risk using a set of tools which includes limits for net unhedged exposures, hedging through forward contracts and hedging through creating offsetting foreign currency assets or liabilities. TMO monitors the end of the day NOP as calculated by the TBO and the NOP movement in relation to the spot movement. TMO also conducts VaR for daily forex position and the NOP. Stress testing is also performed on a daily basis and reported by TMO. The daily interbank foreign currency transactions are monitored for consistency with preset limits and any excesses are reported to the Management and the BIRMC. The Bank has set the limits for FX forward mismatch negative gap for USD currency and for all currencies separately.

The Bank has obtained approval from the Central Bank of Sri Lanka for its foreign currency borrowings and credit lines as per regulatory requirements. The unhedged foreign currency exposure of the Bank is closely monitored and necessary steps are taken to hedge it in accordance with the market volatilities.

Indirect Exposures to Commodity Prices Risk – Gold Prices

The Bank’s pawning portfolio amounted to LKR 9,620 Mn as at 31 December 2022, which is less than 2% of total assets. The Market Risk Management Unit (MRMU) manages the risk emanating from gold through constant analysis of the international and local market prices and adjusting the Bank’s preferred loan to value (LTV) ratio. MRMU also conducts stress testing for the Gold portfolio by forecasting adverse Loss Given Default and PD rates. Stress results are reported to ALCO, BIRMC and the Board.

Equity Prices Risk

Equity prices risk is the risk of losses in the marked-to-market equity portfolio, due to the decline in the market prices. The direct exposure to the equity price risk by the Bank arises from the equity portfolios classified as fair valued through profit and loss and other comprehensive income. Indirect exposure to equity price risk arises through the margin lending portfolio of the Bank in the event of crystallisation of margin borrower’s credit risk. The Investment Committee of the Bank is responsible for managing equity portfolio in line with the policies and the guidelines as set out by the Board and the BIRMC. Allocation of limits for equities taken as collateral for loans and margin trading activities of customers and for the Bank’s investment/trading portfolio forms part of the tools for managing the equity portfolio. Rigorous appraisal, proper market timing and close monitoring of the portfolio performance in relation to the market performance facilitate the management of the equity portfolio within the framework of investment strategy and the risk policy.

Liquidity Risk

Liquidity risk is the risk of not having sufficient funds to meet financial obligations on time and in full, at a reasonable cost. Liquidity risk arises from mismatched maturities of assets and liabilities. The Bank has a well set out framework for liquidity risk management and a contingency funding plan. The liquidity risk management process includes regular analysis and monitoring of the liquidity position by ALCO and maintenance of market accessibility. Regular cash flow forecasts, liquidity ratios and maturity gap analysis are used as analytical tools by the ALCO. Any negative mismatches up to the immediate three months revealed through cash flow gap statements are matched against cash availability either through incremental deposits or committed lines of credit. Whilst meeting the regulatory requirements relating to liquidity, for internal monitoring purposes, the Bank takes into consideration the liquidity of each eligible instrument relating to the market at a given point in time as well as undrawn commitments to borrowers when stress testing its liquidity position.

The maintenance of a strong credit rating and reputation in the market enables the Bank to access domestic wholesale funds. For short-term liquidity support, the Bank also has access to the money market at competitive rates. In line with the long-term project financing business, the Bank focuses on long-term funding through dedicated credit lines while its growing share of commercial banking business focuses on Current Accounts and Savings Accounts (CASA) and Term Deposits as the key source of funding for its lending. The structure and procedures for Asset and Liability Management at the Bank have been clearly set out in the Board approved ALCO Charter, which is reviewed on an annual basis.

The CBSL Direction No. 07 of 2011 specifies that liquidity can be measured through stock or flow approaches. Under the stock approach, liquidity is measured in terms of key ratios which portray the liquidity in the balance sheet. Under the flow approach banks should prepare a statement of maturities of assets and liabilities placing all cash inflows and outflows in the time bands according to their residual time to maturity in major currencies. The Bank has adopted both methods in combination to assess liquidity risk.

Liquidity Risk Management under the Flow Approach

A statement of Maturities of Assets and Liabilities (MAL) is prepared by the Bank placing all cash inflows and outflows in the time bands according to their residual time to maturity and non-maturity items as per CBSL recommended and the Bank specific behavioural assumptions.

The gap analysis of assets and liabilities highlights the cash flow mismatches which assists in managing the liquidity obligations in a prudential manner.

Liquidity Ratios under the Stock Approach

The Bank regularly reviews the trends of the following ratios for liquidity risk management under the stock approach in addition to the regulatory ratios. During the year, the Bank maintained liquidity indicators above the regulatory minimums.

The minimum liquidity standards (Liquidity Coverage Ratio) under Basel III were implemented from April 2015 and amended in November 2018 and November 2019. Accordingly, banks are required to maintain an adequate level of unencumbered High Quality Liquid Assets (HQLAs) that can be easily and readily converted into cash to meet their liquidity needs for a 30-calendar day time horizon under a significantly severe liquidity stress scenario. The computations of LCR performed for the Bank indicated that the Bank was comfortably in compliance with the Basel III minimum requirements, having sufficient High Quality Liquid Assets well in excess of the minimum requirements specified by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka (CBSL) throughout the year.

The Central Bank of Sri Lanka (CBSL) issued guidelines for Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) in November 2018, and progressively increased the requirement to 100% from 1 July 2019 onwards. However, due to adverse economic concessions CBSL relaxed the requirement to 90% till December 2022 for both LCR and NSFR ratios and subsequently both ratio requirements were increased back to 100%. NSFR standards are designed to reduce funding risk over a longer time horizon by requiring banks to fund with sufficiently stable sources to mitigate the risk of future funding stress and require banks to maintain a stable funding profile in relation to the composition of their assets and off-balance sheet exposures.

Key Liquidity Risk Measurement Tools and Reporting Frequencies

Liquidity risk measure/indicator Minimum frequency
Stock approach – Ratio analysis: Net loans to total assets Quarterly
Loans to customer deposits Quarterly
Large liabilities to earning assets excluding temporary investments Quarterly
Purchased funds to total assets Quarterly
Commitments to total assets Quarterly
Trends in the statutory liquid assets ratio Monthly
Trends in Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and forecasts Monthly
Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) Quarterly
Flow approach:
Maturity gap report (on static basis) Quarterly
Net funding requirement through dynamic cash flows Quarterly
Scenario analysis and stress testing Quarterly
Contingency funding plan Annual Review



The Bank has in place a contingency plan which provides guidance on managing liquidity requirements in stressed conditions based on different scenarios of severity. The contingency funding plan provides guidance in managing liquidity in Bank specific or market specific scenarios. It outlines how assets and liabilities of the Bank are to be monitored, pricing strategies are to be devised and growth strategies to be reconsidered emphasising avoidance of a liquidity crisis based on the risk level. The management and reporting framework for ALCO identifies evaluating a set of early warning signals both internal and external in the form of a Liquidity Risk Matrix on a monthly basis in order to assess the applicable scenario ranging from low risk to extreme high liquidity risk and proposes a set of strategies to avoid and mitigate possible crises proactively. The action plan for each of the high risk contingency level scenarios is to be considered by a liquidity contingency management team which includes the CEO, Head of Treasury, CRO, Business Unit Heads and a few other members of Senior Management. The liquidity contingency plan was further improved during the year with quantified scenarios and further specifying responsibilities of the liquidity contingency management team. During the year, the Bank did not come across any high liquidity risk scenarios.

Operational Risk

Operational risk is defined as the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people, systems, and external events. It covers a wide area ranging from losses arising from fraudulent activities, unauthorised trade or account activities, human errors, omissions, inefficiencies in reporting, technology failures or from external events such as natural disasters, cyberattacks, terrorism, theft, political instability and extraordinary events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of the Bank is to manage, control and mitigate operational risk in a cost-effective manner consistent with the Bank’s risk appetite. The Bank has ensured an escalated level of rigour in operational risk management approaches for sensitive areas of its operations.

The Operational Risk Management Committee (ORMC) oversees and directs the management of operational risk of the Bank at an operational level with facilitation from the Operational Risk Management Unit (ORMU) of the IRMD. Active representation of the relevant departments and units of the Bank ensures the process of operational risk management through Operational Risk Coordination Officers (ORCOs).

Segregation of duties with demarcated authority limits, internal and external audit, strict monitoring facilitated by the technology platform and back-up facilities for information are the fundamental tools of operational risk management. Audit findings of high-risk nature and Management responses are forwarded to the Board’s Audit Subcommittee for their examination. Effective internal control systems, supervision by the Board, Senior Management and the line managers form part of the First Line of Defence for operational risk management at the Bank. The Bank demands application of high level of technical skills, professionalism and ethical conduct from its staff and these serve as insulators for many operational risk factors. The unit has completed five reviews and are involved in six process/product improvement discussions to provide inputs for the same.

The following are other key aspects of the operational risk management process at DFCC Bank PLC:

  • Monitoring of Risk and Control Self-Assessment (RCSA) and Key Risk Indicators (KRIs) for the functions under defined threshold limits using a “Traffic Light” system.
  • Maintaining internal operational risk incident reporting system and carrying out an independent analysis of the incidents by IRMD to recognise necessary improvements in the systems, processes, and procedures.
  • Trend analysis on operational risk incidents and review at the ORMC.
  • Review of downtime of the critical systems and assessment of the causes. The risk and business impact are evaluated. Rectification measures are introduced whenever the tolerance levels are compromised.
  • Review of HR attrition and exit interview comments in detail evaluated at the ORMC in an operational risk perspective.
  • Establishment of the Bank’s complaint management process under the Board Approved Complaints Management Policy. IRMD analyses the complaints received to identify any systemic issues and reports to ORMC on an annual basis where the Customer Experience Unit submits quarterly analysis.
  • Conduct product and process reviews in order to identify the operational risks and recommend changes to the products and related processes.
  • Evaluate the operational risks associated with any new product developments.
  • Maintaining an external loss database in order to take proactive action to mitigate operational risks that may arise from the external environment.
  • Assist in the Business Continuity Planning and Disaster Recovery (DR) processes and review the results of DR drills conducted in the Bank to provide recommendations for future improvements.
  • Conduct Fraud Risk Management Committee meetings periodically in order to identify potential fraud risks that might impact the Bank and to take timely remedial actions.
Operational risk reporting
Risk identification Risk assessment Risk monitoring and controlling
  • Risk and Control Self-Assessments (RCSA)
  • Operational risk incident
    analysis (internal and external)
  • Risk analysis of products and services
  • Analysis of customer complaints
  • Evaluation of risks against the controls through RCSA
  • Key Risk Indicators (KRIs)
  • Incident assessment and escalation (internal and external)
  • Stress testing
  • Action plans based on incident analysis, RCSA and KRI
  • Insurance
  • Business Continuity Plan and periodic testing
Culture and awareness
Policies and guidelines

Operational Risk Losses

The Bank has improved its operational risk incident reporting system overtime by creating an increased level of awareness among the employees with regard to operational risks and the importance of timely incident reporting. A total of 214 incidents were reported in 2022. The Operational Risk Coordination Officers (ORCO) are required to send a report to the Operational Risk Management Unit (ORMU) regarding operational risk related incidents if any took place at their respective branches or departments. The operational risk incidents reported in 2022 based on the event type are given in the graph.



The majority of the incidents reported were as a result of failure in the business disruption and system and they also included near misses and no loss incidents. Due to the stringent controls that are in place, current losses from operational risk events have been kept to the barest minimum, with no significant losses.

Risk and Control Self-Assessments (RCSAs) and Key Risk Indicators (KRIs) Process of the Bank

Monitoring of Risk and Control Self-Assessments (RCSAs) and Key Risk Indicators (KRIs) in key functions of the Bank, was further strengthened by identifying the new units of processes within the Bank and developing KRIs and RCSAs, during the year as a measure to allow the early detection of operational risks before actual failure occurs. Currently IRMD monitors 49 departments/units for the KRI and in 2022 RCSA and KRIs were developed for six units.

RCSA requires self-evaluation of operational risk exposures of processes in the Bank by respective departments semi-annually. Each department will assess the risks based on impact and likelihood of occurrence, while controls are assessed based on control design and control performance. The results are evaluated at ORMC for additional controls or mitigants in order to minimise risk exposure to the Bank.

Regular KRI monitoring assists business line managers by providing them with a quantitative, verifiable risk measurement which is evaluated against the thresholds. A summary of KRIs is presented to ORMC based on a traffic light system.

Insurance as a Risk Mitigant

Insurance policies are obtained to transfer the risk of low frequency and high severity losses which may occur as a result of events such as fire, theft, frauds, natural disasters, errors and omissions. Insurance plays a key role as an operational risk mitigant in the banking context due to the financial impact that any single event could trigger.

Insurance policies in force covering losses arising from undermentioned assets/processes include –

  • Cash and cash equivalents
  • Pawned articles
  • Premises and other fixed assets
  • Public liability
  • Employee infidelity
  • Negligence
  • Personal accidents and workmen’s compensation

Losses from counterfeit, forged, fraudulently altered, stolen cards and associated legal expenses

The Insurance Unit of the Bank reviews the adequacy and effectiveness of insurance covers on an annual basis and carries out comprehensive discussions with insurance companies on any revisions required at the time of renewal of the insurance covers.

Outsourcing of Business Functions

Outsourcing takes place when the Bank uses another party to perform non-core banking functions that would traditionally have been undertaken by the Bank itself. As a result, the Bank will be benefited in focusing on its core banking activities while having the non-core functions being taken care of by outside experts.

The Bank has outsourced some business functions under its outsourcing policy after evaluating whether the services are suitable for outsourcing based on an assessment of the risks involved. Further, the Bank undertakes due diligence tests on the companies concerned such as credibility and ability of the owners, BCP arrangements, technical and skilled manpower capability and financial strength. Archival of documents, certain IT operations, security services, and selected recovery functions are some of the outsourced activities of the Bank. The Bank is concerned and committed in ensuring that the outsourced parties continue to uphold and extend a high standard of customer care and service excellence.

A report on outsourced activities is annually submitted to the CBSL for their review while adhering to the Banking Direction on Outsourcing of Business Operations.

Key Operational Risk Measurement Tools and Reporting Frequencies

Operational Risk Measure/Indicator Frequency
Operational risk incidents reported during the period (Internal) Quarterly
Risk and control self-assessments and key risk indicators Semi-annually
Status and reports of any BCP/DR activities undertaken As required
Customer complaints during the period Quarterly
System and ATM downtime reports Quarterly
Attrition information Quarterly
Review of Outsourced Services Unit Annually

For better operational risk management and monitoring, the ORMC and – Sub Committee meeting frequency has been increased to 6 each per year with effect from January 2023 and the ORMC framework has been amended accordingly.

Operational Risk Management of Information Systems Security (iss) Risk under irmd

Information security risk management (ISRM) is the process of managing the risks associated with the use of information technology and evaluating risks to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) of the Bank’s information assets and processes.

The established information security management system is designed to provide a systematic approach to managing the Bank’s sensitive information and processes by considering all aspects of people, processes and technology controls. Further, the Bank’s information security management system is ISO 27001:2013 certified since 2016.

Main objectives of ISRM are to ensure compliance with regulatory and contractual requirements while adopting industry security best practices and aligning information security risk management with corporate risk management objectives.

ISRM is an ongoing process of identifying, assessing, and responding to security risks. To manage risks effectively, the Bank has adopted international security standards such as ISO 27001:2013 and is working towards PCI-DSS Certification while being compliant with SWIFT customer security controls framework, Baseline Security Standard (BSS) and payment related mobile application security guidelines of CBSL.

The Bank has started adapting the Technology Resilience framework of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka and the Personnel Data Protection Act during the year 2022 to further improve the ISRM strategy of the Bank.

The Bank’s current ISRM strategy focuses on the following activities:

  • Improve the existing Information Security Management System (ISMS) by adopting recent CBSL Regulatory Framework on Technology Resilience and the Data Protection Act.
  • Improve information security policies, procedures and guidelines considering the regulatory requirements and dynamic threat landscape.
  • Continuous assessment of security risks related to the Bank’s information assets and processes to ensure technology-related residual risks are maintained at acceptable levels.
  • Review and monitor information security KPIs and report the status of the indicators to the Operational Risk Management Committee.
  • Conduct internal vulnerability assessment and penetration testing covering IT infrastructure on defined time intervals to ensure known vulnerabilities are properly managed.
  • Perform trend analysis on the Bank cybersecurity posture and manage information security incidents to minimise the risk.
  • Ensure adequate information security awareness is given to staff members and Board of directors to follow security best practices and detect and report information security events and incidents.

As improvements to the management framework, the Bank adopted a process-oriented risk assessment methodology for better clarity of risks involved in processes and the corresponding risk factors through an objective oriented risk identification approach last year. As a result of the establishment of a new independent user access review process covering common user access risk scenarios, the system user account management process was streamlined according to the information security policy of the Bank.

By understanding the complexity of current supply chain-based cybersecurity threats, the Bank consulted a specialised service provider for due diligence and a risk assessment process to quantify risks associated with third-party vendors who are providing technology services to the Bank.

The Bank adopted new information security controls and processes to ensure the continuity of information security while empowering working remotely, which helped the Bank maintain the same customer experience by increasing resource availability during rapid surges in demand for digital capabilities.

Further, the Bank revised the cybersecurity risk reporting process during the last year to improve the visibility of information security posture of the Bank to the Senior Management considering the importance of cybersecurity to business continuation.

The Bank considers its customer information as a priceless asset and keeps on improving its information security governance processes factoring current cybersecurity threats and security best practices.

During the last year, the Bank undertook a few initiatives to improve the security of its digital assets by introducing new technologies.

  • Improve the Security Operations Center (SOC) capabilities by investing on a state of the art cloud Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solution as the first Bank to adopt a cloud based SIEM in Sri Lanka.
  • Improve the frequency of security assessments and the depth on critical business applications.
  • Improve real time vulnerability detection and risk based vulnerability management capabilities bankwide through improvements to the existing Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) solution.
  • Performing technology and operational security gap assessments in the payment card related business functions and initiated control implementations to improve the security posture by aligning it with the PCI-DSS security standard requirements.
  • Implementation of Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) solution to ensure the protection of customer and business-sensitive data of the Bank as a part of the Bank’s data governance process.
  • Implementation of endpoint data encryption solution to better align with data protection governance requirements.
  • Improving Bank policy and procedure coverage to accommodate work from home requirements and strengthening the security controls and monitoring mechanisms to ensure the security continuation during a crisis situation.
  • Improving information security training and awareness programmes by introducing new modules to the existing computer-based training (CBT) platform.

Key Information Security risk measurement tools and reporting frequencies

Information Security Risk Measure/Indicator Frequency
IT infrastructure vulnerability assessments (internal) Quarterly
Business application vulnerability assessment (internal) Quarterly
Third party Penetration Testing Annually
Technology related risk assessment (internal) Semi-annually
Vendor security assessment (internal) Annually
Information security incident reporting Quarterly
Top and emerging risk reporting (internal) Monthly

Reputational Risk

Reputational risk is the risk of losing public trust or tarnishing of the Bank’s image in the public eye. It could arise from environmental, social, regulatory, or operational risk factors. Events that could lead to reputational risk are closely monitored, utilising an early warning system that includes inputs from frontline staff, media reports, and internal and external market survey results. Though all policies and standards relating to the conduct of the Bank’s business have been promulgated through internal communication and training, a specific policy was established to take action in case of an event which may affect the reputation. The Bank has zero tolerance for knowingly engaging in any business, activity, or association where foreseeable reputational damage has not been considered and mitigated. While there is a level of risk in every aspect of business activity, appropriate consideration of potential harm to the Bank’s good name is a part of all business decisions. The complaint management process and the whistleblowing process of the Bank include a set of key tools to recognise and manage reputational risk. Based on the operational risk incidents, any risks which could lead to reputational damage are presented to the Board and suitable measures are taken by the Bank to mitigate and control such risks.

Business Risk

Business risk is the risk of deterioration in earnings due to the loss of market share, changes in the cost structure and adverse changes in industry or macroeconomic conditions. The Bank’s medium-term strategic plan and annual business plan form a strategic roadmap for sustainable growth. Continuous competitor and customer analysis and monitoring of the macroeconomic environment enables the Bank to formulate its strategies for growth and business risk management. Processes such as Planning, ALM, IT and Product Development in collaboration with business functions facilitate the management of business risk through recognition, measurement, and implementation of tasks. Business risk relating to customers is assessed in the credit rating process and is priced accordingly.

Legal Risk

Legal risk arises from unenforceable transactions in a court of law or the failure to successfully defend legal action instituted against the Bank. Legal risk management commences from prior analysis, and a thorough understanding of, and adherence to related legislation by the staff. Necessary precautions are taken at the design stage of transactions to minimise legal risk exposure.

In the event of a legal risk factor, the Legal Unit of the Bank takes immediate action to address and mitigate these risks. External legal advice is obtained or counsel retained when required.

Compliance Risk

Compliance from a banking perspective can be defined as acting in accordance with a law, rule, regulation or a standard. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in 2005 defines “compliance risk” as “the risk of legal or regulatory sanctions, material financial loss, or loss to reputation a bank may suffer as a result of its failure to comply with laws, regulations, rules related self-regulatory organisation standards, and Codes of Conduct applicable to its banking activities”.

Bank’s governing principles on compliance are to: ensure compliance starts from the top, to emphasise standards of honesty and integrity and hold itself to high standards when carrying on business, at all times strive to observe the spirit as well as the letter of the law. Further, it sets compliance as an integral part of the Bank’s business activities and part of the culture of the Organisation and at all times will be observing proper standards of market conduct, managing conflicts of interest, treating customers fairly, and ensuring the suitability of customer advice.

The Compliance Governance Structure of the Bank has been set up to manage the compliance risk of the Bank independently. DFCC Bank has adopted a globally accepted compliance governance structure set following such recommendations, which is also ratified by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Accordingly, the Compliance Officer independently reports to the Board Integrated Risk Management Committee through which the Board of Directors of the Bank are updated on the compliance matters frequently.

The Bank’s Board of Directors are responsible for overseeing the management of the Bank’s compliance risk. Towards this; the Board has delegated its powers to the Board Integrated Risk Management Committee which takes appropriate action to establish a permanent, independent and effective compliance function in the Bank, to ensure that compliance issues are resolved effectively and expeditiously by the Senior Management of the Bank with the assistance of the compliance function and assess the extent to which the Bank is managing its compliance risk effectively.

The Bank’s Corporate/Senior Management is responsible for the effective management of the Bank’s compliance risk and an independent robust compliance culture has been established within the Bank with processes and workflows designed with the required checks and balances to facilitate compliance. The compliance function works closely with the business and operational units to ensure consistent management of compliance risks.

Scope of the Compliance function encompasses legislative enactments: rules, regulations, directions, determinations, operating instructions, circulars issued by regulators; Bank’s internal policies, circulars, guidelines; industry best practices and standards issued by professional bodies; and international regulations. In order to manage the compliance risk of the Bank, the Compliance Function on a proactive basis, identifies, documents and assesses the compliance risks associated with the Bank’s business activities, including the development of new products and business practices. It has set in place, a Compliance Programme based on a risk-based approach to be carried out under a set of scheduled activities annually, that consists of, compliance testing, branch visits, verification of returns, developing and reviewing compliance KRIs and methodologies, ensuring timely submission of regulatory returns, clarifications of regulatory circulars, reporting to Board and/or subcommittee and educating staff on compliance matters and conducting bank-wide compliance training. It also manages and ensures information accuracy of the Data submitted to the Credit Information Bureau of Sri Lanka.

The compliance functions carried out to mitigate the compliance risk can be illustrated as follows



Banking being the largest segment in the global financial system, is the most vulnerable sector used by criminals and terrorists to launder money. Regulators all over the world are therefore adopting strict measures to ensure that banks have in place adequate systems and processes to mitigate the Money Laundering (ML) and Terrorism Financing (TF) risk. Sri Lanka as a country and its Regulator, the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) are also subject to assessment by the international organisations on the commitment towards global Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Countering Financing of Terrorism (CFT) efforts. Therefore, any non-compliance in banks related to this area is taken seriously and is subject to fines and penalties by the FIU.

Thus, AML and CFT related compliance programme of the Bank is a core activity of the Compliance Function. To make the Bank safe and sound in terms of AML and CFT, the compliance department spearheads a number of activities such as formulating policies, procedures connected with KYC and Customer Due Diligence, Transaction Monitoring to identify suspicious transactions, Name Screening process to ensure that the Bank is not dealing with sanctioned persons or entities, Politically Exposed Persons (PEP) related Enhanced Due Diligence process, etc. Further, in line with the Customer Due Diligence (CDD) rules issued by the Financial Intelligence Unit and the Financial Action Task Force Recommendations, the Bank has adopted a risk based approach in identifying ML/TF exposure of the Bank relating to customers, products, services, channels, countries, geographic regions and transaction volumes.

The Compliance department uses the Financial Crime Mitigation (FCM) System to better manage the ML/TF risk of the Bank.

FCM has sound functionalities such as sanctions screening, identifying the Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs), KYC Risk scoring and categorisation, AML Transaction Monitoring and fraud mitigation and support all user functions including alert management, case management, reporting and dashboards and the same is used in managing the ML/TF Risk that the Bank is exposed to.

The FCM has features in line with the CDD rules, supporting risk-based customer reviews through the system. Front staff can now update the customer risk at the time of on-boarding using the FCM KC+ Module and it is capable of retaining data on changes of risk rating. Further reviews based on the risk category can also be managed through the system on a timely basis. Using the real time screening, all new on-boarding customers, inward and outward Telegraphic Transfers (TT) and other trade transactions are closely monitored, prior to the transaction taking place.

Further, the Compliance Department uses a Risk Matrix consisting of regulatory ratios as well as a number of other quantifiable compliance Key Risk Indicators (KRI) to assess the Bank wide compliance risk level. Results are presented to the Operational Risk Management Committee and to the Board Integrated Risk Management Committee every quarter. Based on this matrix, the Bank is rated low and lower medium in the compliance risk category for the last four consecutive years.

Business Continuity Management

The Business Continuity Management System (BCMS) and the Business Continuity Plan (BCP) of the Bank ensure timely recovery of critical operations that are required to meet stakeholder needs based on identified disruptions categorised into various severity levels. The BCMS has been designed to minimise risk to human and other resources and to enable the resumption of critical operations within reasonable time frames specified according to Recovery Time Objectives (RTOs) with minimum disruption to customer services and payment and settlement systems.

In order to enhance the resilience of the Bank’s IT systems, the Primary Data Centre and backup Disaster Recovery (DR) IT Systems were relocated to two separate Tier 3 certified co-location data centres during the year. The existing DR site located in a suburb of Colombo will continue to be used as an alternate work site for critical business operations.

The Bank conducts periodic DR drills. These DR drills are subject to independent validation by the Internal Audit Department. A report on the effectiveness of the drill is submitted to the BIRMC/Board and also to the Central Bank with the Board’s observations. Learnings and improvements to DR activities are discussed and implemented through the BCMS Committee, the ORMC and the BIRMC. Training and drills are carried out to ensure that employees are aware of their role within the BCP.

Stress Testing of Key Risks

The Bank has been conducting stress testing on a regular basis. A comprehensive Stress Testing Policy which is in line with the regulatory guidelines as well as international best practices are in place. The Policy describes the purpose of stress testing and governance structure, methodology for formulating stress tests, frequencies, assumptions, tolerance limits and remedial action.

Stress testing and scenario analysis have played a major role in the Bank’s risk mitigation efforts. Stress testing has provided a dynamic platform to assess, “What If” scenarios and to provide the Bank with an assessment on areas to improve. The Bank covers a wide range of stress tests that checks the resilience of the Bank’s capital, liquidity, profitability, etc.

The outcome of the stress testing process is monitored carefully and remedial actions taken and used by the Bank as a tool to supplement other risk management approaches.

During 2022, the Stress Testing Process was improved with updated stress scenarios which are more relevant to the current economic landscape and a stress testing dashboard was introduced for better presentation of the impact on capital adequacy under each stress circumstances. The details of stress tests carried out by the Bank for 2022 are given below:

Risk area and methodologies adopted Results
Credit and concentration risk
  • Impact of adverse movement of the impairment stages
  • Impact of increase in the Stage 3 Assets
  • Impact to the Bank due to fall in value of collaterals of Stage 3 facilities
  • Sector concentration, concentration of credit ratings, concentration of products and concentration of borrowers
  • Capital Adequacy Ratios (CAR) were stressed to see if the ratios fall >below the regulatory levels
  • Additional capital was computed for all extreme concentration risks and was reported to the Senior Management
  • The CAR remained above the minimum regulatory limit under low stressed conditions
  • At medium and high stress conditions, CAR stands above 10% which is the minimum regulatory requirement at a full drawdown of the Capital Conservation Buffer (CCB).
Market risk
  • Stress testing and VaR calculations of currency exposure
  • Stress testing and VaR calculations for the equity portfolio
  • Change of interest rates and its effect on the Bank’s profitability and capital
  • VaR on currency exposure and equity portfolio were within the Bank’s acceptable risk matrices .
  • Change of interest rates did not affect the Capital of the Bank significantly except for high stress scenarios.
Operational risk
  • Stress on the Bank’s capital against increase of possible operational losses
  • No significant effect on capital and is well within the Bank’s risk absorption capability.
Liquidity risk
  • Stress on liquidity due to settlement risk, decline in collections, and bulk deposit redemption
  • Stress on liquid assets ratio due to run on liabilities
  • Erosion of deposits due to sudden reputation risk and associated liquidity risks
  • Liquid asset ratio was maintained above the minimum regulatory limit at moderate stress scenarios.
  • Even at the run off of 20 largest depositors, liquid asset ratio stands above the regulatory limit.
  • Multifactor stress testing
  • Combined stress of all risks
  • At all stress conditions, CAR stands above 10% which is the minimum regulatory requirement at a full drawdown of the Capital Conservation Buffer.

The findings of the Bank’s stress testing activities are an input into several processes including capital computation under Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP), strategic planning and risk management. As an integral part of ICAAP under Pillar II, stress testing is used to evaluate the sensitivity of the current and forward risk profile relative to the stress levels which are defined as low, moderate and high in the Stress Testing Policy. The resultant impact on the capital through these stress tests is carefully analysed and BIRMC conducts regular review stress testing outcomes including assumptions that underpin them.

As it provides a broader view of all risks borne by the Bank in relation to its risk tolerance and strategy in a hypothetical stress situation, stress testing has become an effective communication tool to the Senior Management, risk owners, risk managers as well as supervisors and regulators. The results of the stress testing are reported to the BIRMC and the Board on a quarterly basis for appropriate and proactive decision-making.

Risk Capital Position and Financial Flexibility

The Bank adopts a proactive approach to ensure a satisfactory risk capital level throughout its operations. In line with its historical practice and the capital targets, the Bank aims to maintain its risk capital position above the regulatory minimum requirements for Tier I and total capital under Basel guidelines.

As at 31 December 2022, the Bank maintained a risk capital position of 10.09% Tier I capital ratio and 13.15% total capital ratio based on the Basel III regulatory guidelines. Both ratios are above the minimum regulatory requirement of 8.5% for Tier 1 and 12.5% for total capital.

Capital adequacy measures the adequacy of the Bank’s aggregate capital in relation to the risk it assumes. The capital adequacy of the Bank has been computed under the following approaches of the Basel regulations which are currently effective in the local banking industry

  • Standardised approach for credit risk
  • Standardised approach for market risk
  • Basic Indicator approach for operational risk

The graph below shows the Bank’s capital allocation and available capital buffer as at 31 December 2022, based on the quantified risk as per the applicable regulatory guidelines. Out of the regulatory risk capital (total capital) available as at 31 December, capital allocation for credit risk is 86% of the total capital while the available capital buffer is 5%.



Capital Adequacy Management

BASEL III is the global regulatory standard on managing capital and liquidity of banks which is currently in effect. With the introduction of Basel III from mid-2017, the capital requirements of banks have increased with an aim to raise the quality, quantity, consistency and transparency of capital base and improve the loss absorbing capacity.

Additionally, the Pillar II (Supervisory Review Process – SRP) under the Basel regulations requires banks to implement an internal process, of Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP), for assessing capital adequacy in relation to the risk profiles as well as a strategy for maintaining capital levels. The Bank has in place an ICAAP, which has strengthened the risk management practices and capital planning process. It focuses on formulating a mechanism to assess the Bank’s capital requirements covering all relevant risks and stress conditions in a futuristic perspective in line with the level of assumed risk exposures through its business operations. The ICAAP formulates the Bank’s capital targets, capital management objectives and capital augmentation plans.

The ICAAP demonstrates that the Bank has implemented methods and procedures to capture all material risks and adequate capital is available to cover such risks. This document integrates Pillar I and Pillar II processes of the Bank wherein Pillar I deals with regulatory capital, primarily covering credit, market and operational risks whilst Pillar II deals with economic capital involving all other types of risks.

As per the direction issued by the CBSL, under supervisory review of Basel III, CBSL encourages banks to enhance their risk management framework and manage emerging risks in a more proactive manner. This is to ensure that the Bank maintains an adequate capital buffer in case of a crisis while more importance has been placed on Pillar II and ICAAP. The Bank uses a mix of quantitative and qualitative assessment methods to measure Pillar II risks. A quantitative assessment approach is used for concentration risk, liquidity risk, and interest rate risk whilst qualitative approaches are used to assess the risks such as reputational risk and strategic risk.

The Senior Management team is closely involved in formulating risk strategy and governance, thereby considering the Bank’s capital planning objectives under the strategic planning process. Capital forecasting for the next three years covering envisaged business projections is considered in the budgeting process. This forward-looking capital planning helps the Bank to be ready with additional capital requirements in the future. It integrates strategic plans and risk management plans with the capital plan in a meaningful manner with inputs from Senior Management, Management Committees, Board Committees and the Board.

Capital adequacy ratio and risk-weighted assets of DFCC Bank PLC on a solo and a group basis under Basel III

31 December 2022 2021
Quantified as per the CBSL Guidelines Bank Group Bank Group
Credit risk-weighted assets (LKR Mn) 331,751 332,256 339,261 339,722
Market risk-weighted assets (LKR Mn) 8,392 8,392 10,006 10,006
Operational risk-weighted assets (LKR Mn) 24,960 25,493 18,910 19,381
Total risk-weighted assets (LKR Mn) 365,103 366,141 368,177 369,109
Total Tier I capital adequacy ratio – Basel III (%) 10.09% 9.94% 9.31% 9.28%
Total capital adequacy ratio – Basel III (%) 13.15% 12.99% 13.03% 13.00%

Financial Flexibility in the DFCC Group’s Capital Structure

The Bank has access to contributions from shareholders as well as it possesses built-up capital reserves over a period of time by adopting prudent dividend policies, maintaining an increased level of retained profits and issuing Tier II eligible capital instruments as and when necessary.

Apart from the capital position reported on balance sheet, the Bank maintains financial flexibility through the stored value in its equity investment portfolio. The unrealised capital gain of the listed equity portfolio is included in the fair value reserve.

Assessment of Integrated Risk

In the process of assessment of integrated risk, the Bank reviews key regulatory developments in order to anticipate changes and their potential impact on performance. The nature and impact of changes in economic policies, laws and regulations, are monitored and considered in the way the Bank conducts business and manages capital and liquidity.

The Bank has complied with all the currently applicable risk-related regulatory requirements while closely monitoring the internal limits as shown in the table below

Risk category Impact Key risk indicators Limit type
Integrated risk management An adequate level of capital is required to absorb unexpected losses without affecting the Bank’s stability (Capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets). Common Equity Tier I Ratio (Common Equity Tier I as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets) Regulatory
Total Tier I Capital Ratio (Total Tier I Capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets) Regulatory/ Internal
Total Capital Ratio (Total capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets) Regulatory/ Internal
Credit risk management
When the credit portfolio is concentrated on a few borrowers or a few groups of borrowers with large exposures, there is a high risk of a substantial loss due to failure of one such borrower. Single Borrower Limit – Individual (amount of accommodation granted to any single company, public corporation, firm, association of persons or an individual/capital base) Regulatory/ Internal
Single Borrower Limit – Group Regulatory/ Internal
Aggregate large accommodation limit (sum of the total outstanding amount of accommodation granted to customers whose accommodation exceeds 15% of the capital base/outstanding amount of accommodation granted by the Bank to total customers excluding the Government of Sri Lanka) Regulatory/ Internal
Aggregate limits for related parties (accommodation to related parties
as per the CBSL Direction/Regulatory Capital)
Exposure to agriculture sector as defined by CBSL Direction Regulatory
Exposure to each industry sector (exposure to each industry
as a percentage of total lending portfolio)
Leases portfolio (on-balance sheet exposure to the leasing product
as a percentage of total lending portfolio plus securities portfolio)
Exposure to GOSL Internal
Exposure to institutions in the Maldives Internal
Stage 3 Ratio Internal
Industry HHI Internal
Project lending Regulatory
Loan and OD – Exposure in BB grade Internal
Loan and OD – Exposure in B and below grades Internal
Leasing – Exposure in BB and below grades Internal
Leasing – Exposure in B and below grades Internal
Limit on margin lending for individual borrowers Regulatory
Margin trading (aggregate exposure of margin loans extended/total loans and advances) Internal
Liquidity risk management If adequate liquidity is not maintained, the Bank will be unable to fund the Bank’s commitments and planned assets growth without incurring additional costs or losses. Liquid Assets Ratio for DBU and Bank level (average monthly liquid assets/total monthly liabilities) Regulatory/Internal
Liquid Assets Ratio for FCBU Regulatory
Liquidity Coverage Ratio (all currencies and Rupee only) Regulatory
Liquidity Coverage Ratio (Rupee only) Internal
Single Depositor Limit (Highest Single Depositor/Total fixed deposits) Internal
Statutory Reserve Ratio Regulatory
Foreign Currency Borrowing Limit – Short-term borrowings Regulatory
Foreign Currency Borrowing Limit – Total borrowings Regulatory
Net Stable Funding Ratio Regulatory
Leverage Ratio Regulatory
Market risk management Forex Net Open Long Position Regulatory
Forex Net Open Short Position Regulatory
Limit for counterparty off-balance sheet market risk Internal
Max holding period for trading portfolio Internal
Maximum FX Swap Internal
Clean money market borrowing limit Internal
Treasury trading securities portfolio Internal
Portfolio limit on AFS Internal
Portfolio limit on HTM Internal
Investment risk Equity exposure – Individual (equity investment in a private or public company/Capital funds of the Bank) Regulatory
Equity exposure – Individual (equity investment in a private or public company/Paid-up capital of the Company) Regulatory
Aggregate equity exposure in public companies (aggregate amount of equity investments in public companies/capital funds of the Bank) Regulatory
Equity exposure (equity exposure as a percentage of Total Lending Portfolio plus Securities Portfolio) Internal
Equity exposure in each sector Internal
Single equity exposure out of the quoted equity portfolio Internal
Operational efficiency Operational efficiency ratio Internal
Adequately placed policies, processes and systems will ensure and mitigate against excessive risks which may result in direct financial impact, reputational damages
and/or regulatory actions
Regulatory breaches (zero risk appetite) Internal
Inability to recover from business disruptions over and above the Recovery Time Objectives (RTO) as defined in the BCP of the Bank (zero risk appetite) Internal
Internal fraud (zero tolerance for losses due to acts of a type intended to defraud, misappropriate property or circumvent regulations, the law or Bank policy, excluding diversity/discrimination events, which involve at least one internal party) Internal
External fraud (very low appetite for losses due to act of a type intended to defraud, misappropriate property or circumvent laws, by a third party) Internal
Employee practices and workplace safety (zero appetite for losses arising from acts inconsistent with employment, health or safety laws or agreements from payment of personal injury claims, or from diversity/discrimination events) Internal
Client products and business practices (zero risk appetite for losses arising from an unintentional or negligent failure to meet a professional obligation to specific clients (including fiduciary and suitability requirements) or, from the nature or design of a product) Internal
Damage to physical assets (very low appetite for loss arising from loss or damage to physical assets from natural disasters or other events) Internal
Business disruption and systems failures (low appetite for business disruptions/system failures for more than 30 minutes during service hours) Internal
Execution, delivery, and process management (low appetite for losses
from failed transaction processing or process management)